AAAtomic AbsorptionAtomic Absorption
AA-HPLCAtomic Absorbtion, HPLCAtomic Absorbtion, HPLC
AASAtomic Absorption SpectrophotometryAtomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Ab/NeutralAntibody NeutralizationAntibody Neutralization
ABIFAvidin-Biotin Immunofluorescence (ABIF) holds promise for more sensitive and specific amplification of indirect fluorescent antibody procedures. Antibody to the patient's specific antibodies is labeled with biotin, a compound capable of specifically binding avidin in high concentrations. Fluorescently labeled avidin is then added and fluorescent microscopy is used to detect the presence of the complexes.
ACIFAnticomplement Immunofluorescence(ACIF) is a technique used to make certain indirect fluorescent antibody techniques more specific and sensitive. Here the fluorescent dye is conjugated to antibody directed at complement and then added to a complement-fixing complex of antigen and patient antibody.
AEAgarose Electrophoresis (AE)Agarose Electrophoresis (AE)
AEDSAgarose Electrophoresis, Densitometry, SpectrophotometryAgarose Electrophoresis, Densitometry, Spectrophotometry
AGGAggregationPlatelet Aggregation
AGHEPAlkaline Gel Hemoglobin Electrophoresis (AGHEP) is a technique for separation of ionic molecules (principally proteins) by the differential migration through a alkaline gel according to the size and ionic charge of the molecules in an electrical field. Smaller molecules with a more negative charge will travel faster and further through the alkaline gel toward the anode of an electrophoretic cell when high voltage is applied. Similar molecules will group on the gel. They may be visualized by staining and quantitated, in relative terms, using densitometers which continuously monitor the photometric density of the resulting stain.
ASAtomic SpectroscopyAtomic Spectroscopy
Assay DepAssay DependantAssay Dependant


BCGBCGBromocresol Green (BCG)
BD AffirmBD Affirm™The Affirm™ VPIII Microbial Identification Test is the first direct specimen DNA probe-based diagnostic test for the differential detection and identification of the causative agents for vaginitis: Candida species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

The Affirm™ VPIII test's DNA probe technology offers a dependable, rapid means toward early identification and treatment of patients suffering from these pathogens. The test features an easy-to-read visible color reaction that is more accurate than current microscopic methods for detecting the causative agents of vaginitis. Additionally, its performance is unhampered by "difficult specimens," self-medication or the presence of mixed infections.

During the test process, the assay aligns complementary nucleic acid strands to form specific, double-stranded complexes called hybrids. For each organism, this hybrid is composed of capture and color development single-stranded nucleic acid probes, complementary to the released target nucleic acid analyte. Enzyme conjugate then binds to the captured analyte.

A positive result is a visible blue color reaction on the organism-specific bead embedded in the Affirm™ Probe Analysis Card (PAC). Each PAC contains three vaginitis organism test beads, plus positive and negative control beads to ensure test quality.

BD Prb TecBD ProbeTecAmplified DNA Probe
bDNAbDNABranched Chain DNA
bDNA/TMAbDNA/TMABranched Chain DNA, Transcription-Mediated Amplification


CECapillary ElectrophoresisCapillary Electrophoresis
CEDIACEDIACloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay - The CEDIA method offers superior sensitivity and the best lot-to-lot consistency of any automated method. In addition, CEDIA assays are easier and less time-consuming than high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays.
CELLSEARCHVeridex CellSearchVeridex CellSearch
CFComplement Fixation(CF) is an exacting, complex yet sensitive procedure that detects the presence of a specific antigen-antibody reaction by causing the in vitro activation of complement via the classical pathway. If complement is not fixed, lysis of the pre-antibody-coated reagent erythrocytes occurs. Again, crude quantitation of antibodies is possible by determining the highest dilution (titer) at which lysis does not occur. The differentiation of specific antibody isotype is not possible.
CF/ID/ELISComplement Fixation/Immunodiffusion/ELISAComplement Fixation/Immunodiffusion/ELISA
CIAChemiluminescence Assay(CIA), including a subcategory using bioluminescence (biologically derived chemiluminescence agents), use the generation of light from oxidative chemical reactions as an indicator of the quantity of unbound luminescently labeled antigen. This allows quantitation of unlabeled antigen from patient specimens in a variety of homogeneous (single phase) or heterogeneous (multiple phase) immunoassay techniques.
CIECounterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is a procedure in which oppositely charged antigen and antibody are propelled toward each other by an electrical field. This reduces the time necessary for visualization of the antigen-antibody reaction from 18-24 hours in ID to less than one hour and also substantially increases the sensitivity of the analysis. CIE has the capability of detecting concentrations of antigen/antibody 10 times smaller than the lowest concentrations measurable by DD or ID.
CL/IAChemiluminescence, ImmunoassayChemiluminescence, Immunoassay
CLOTClot DetectionClot Detection
CMIAChemiluminescent Micropartical ImmunoassayChemiluminescent Micropartical Immunoassay
CNPG3CNPG3Reagent utilises 2-chloro-pnitrophenyl-
CoACoagglutination (CoA) is similar to the LA technique for detecting antigen (described above). Protein A, a uniformly distributed cell wall component of Staphylococcus aureus, is able to bind to the Fc region of most IgG isotype antibodies leaving the Fab region free to interact with antigens present in the applied specimens. The visible agglutination of the S. aureus particles indicates the antigen-antibody reaction.
COLOColorimetric Colorimetric
Colo/PortColorimetric with Porter-Silber ReactionColorimetric with Porter-Silber Reaction
Colo/ZimColorimetric with Modified Zimmerman ReactionColorimetric with Modified Zimmerman Reaction
Cop-SulfCopper SulfateCopper Sulfate
COULCoulometric The iontophoresis Sweat Test,  a collection is elution of sweat in a plastic coil then analyzed by the coulometric titration of chloride with silver by a digital chloridometer.
CQQCIACell Culture/Quantitative CIA/ Semi-Quantitative CIA Cell Culture/Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay/ Semi-Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
Cul/DFACulture / DFAMicrobiological Culture and DFA (DFA) is a general term for techniques which use the agglutination (macroscopic clumping) of particulate reagents as an indicator of the presence of an antigen-antibody reaction. Examples (HA, LA and CoA) follow.
Cul/StimCul/StimEx-Vivo cell culture and Histamine analysis for Chronic Urticaria (CU) index.
CultCultureMicrobiological Culture
Cult/CIACell Culture/ChemiluminescenceCell Culture/Chemiluminescence
Cyt-StCytochemical Stain Cytochemical Stain


DADirect Agglutination(DA) is a general term for techniques which use the agglutination (macroscopic clumping) of particulate reagents as an indicator of the presence of an antigen-antibody reaction. Examples (HA, LA and CoA) follow.
DFADirect Fluorescent Antibody(DFA) is the straightforward detection of antigens using fluorescently labeled antigen-specific antibody. Because detection of the antigen in a substrate of patient sample (cellular smear, fluid or patient- inoculated culture medium) is the goal, DFA is seldom quantitative.
DGU/SpecDGU/SpecDensity Gradient Ultracentrifugation with Spectrophotometry
DiazoDiazoBilibuin is coupled with diazotized sulphanilic acid in acidic
DNA HybDNA HybridizationDNA Hybridization - The detection of specific human papillomavirus DNA types in paraffin-embedded human tissue.
DNA ProbeDNA ProbeDNA Probe
DNA-BCBADNA-Based Capture Binding AssayDNA-Based Capture Binding Assay
DNA-MethDNA methylation analysis DNA methylation analysis
DOT-BLOTDNA "Dot-Blot" Hybridization(DOT-BLOT) is a rapid technique used to detect the presence of a specific DNA in a specimen. Dots, or spots of the DNA containing sample are placed onto a nitrocellulose membrane and fixed. This membrane is then hybridized to a radioactively labeled DNA segment of known sequence, specific for the pathogenic DNA being tested. If the pathogenic DNA is present in the specimen, complementary DNA sequences present on the membrane will hybridize, or anneal, producing a double-stranded DNA segment with the radioactive label incorporated into the molecule. The presence of radioactivity is detected by autoradiography.
Dry ChemDry ChemistryDry Chemistry


E-RBCEnzymatic-RBC Hemolysate Enzymatic-RBC Hemolysate
E/LCTMSEnzymatic/Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Enzymatic/Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
ECIAElectrochemiluminescent Immunoassay Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay
ECRAExtraction, Chromatography, Radioreceptor AssayExtraction, Chromatography, Radioreceptor Assay
EIAEnzyme Immunoassay (EIA) is the general term for an expanding technical arsenal of testing which allows a full range of quantitative analyses for both antigen and antibodies. These tests use color-changed products of enzyme-substrate interaction (or inhibition) to measure the antigen-antibody reaction. Examples of EIA procedures (EMIT, ELISA, MAC, MEIA) follow.
EIA Ag CapEIA (Antigen Capture)EIA (Antigen Capture)
EIA/LCTMSQual EIA/Quant LC-TMSQualitative Enzyme Immunoassay/Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Elect-ChemElectro ChemicalElectrochemical reaction with lead detection sensor
ELISAEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA) is a sensitive, heterogenous (multiple phase) analytical technique for quantitation of antigen or antibody in which enzyme-labeled antibody or antigen is bound to a solid support (e.g., tubes, beads, microtiter plate wells, plastic tines or fins). After addition of patient specimen and substrate, antigen, antibody or complex are detected by a color change indicating the presence of the product of an enzyme-substrate reaction. Direct ELISA is a technique for measuring antigen using competition for antibody binding sites between enzyme- labeled antigen and patient antigen. Indirect ELISA, or enzyme immunometric assay, measures antibody concentrations using bound antigen to interact with specimen antibodies. Enzyme-labeled reagent antibodies can be isotype-specific (i.e., capable of determining the presence of IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE classes which react with the antigen of interest). The specificity of indirect ELISA assays for IgM isotypes in some infectious diseases is limited by false-positive results due to IgM rheumatoid factor in the presence of IgG-specific antibodies.
ELISA/IFAEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/IFAEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody
ELISA/LCMSQualitative ELISA/Quantitative LC-TMSQualitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
ELISA/NephEnzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay/NephelometryEnzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Nephelometry
EMCDElectromagnetic Mechanical Clot Detection Electromagnetic Mechanical Clot Detection
EMITEnzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique(EMIT) is a homogeneous (single phase) EIA procedure in which the antigen being measured competes for a limited number of antibody binding sites with enzyme labeled antigen. The reagent antibody has the ability to block enzymatic activity when bound with the reagent enzyme-antigen complex preventing it's formation of product in the presence of substrate. The free antigen- enzyme complexes resulting from competition with measured antigen in the sample forms color-change products proportional to the concentration of antigen present in the specimen.
EnzEnzymatic Enzymatic
ENZ-ColorEnzymatic - ColorimetricEnzymatic - Colorimetric
ENZ-SpecEnzymatic - SpectrophotometricEnzymatic - Spectrophotometric
EPElectrophoresis(EP) is a technique for separation of ionic molecules (principally proteins) by the differential migration through a gel according to the size and ionic charge of the molecules in an electrical field. Smaller molecules with a more negative charge will travel faster and further through the gel toward the anode of an electrophoretic cell when high voltage is applied. Similar molecules will group on the gel. They may be visualized by staining and quantitated, in relative terms, using densitometers which continuously monitor the photometric density of the resulting stain.
Eq-DialEquilibrium DialysisEquilibrium Dialysis
ERDElectronic Resistance DetectionElectronic Resistance Detection
Ex-HP-HPLCExtraction, High Pressure HPLCExtraction, High Pressure HPLC
Ex-RIAExtraction - RIAExtraction Radioimmunoassay (RIA)


FAFluorescent Antibody (FA) assay is a general term for procedures which utilize the visual detection of fluorescent dyes coupled (conjugated) to antibodies which react with the antigen when present using fluorescent microscopy. FA allows a competent technologist to identify visually the site of the antigen-antibody reaction thereby rendering significant specificity. Variations are further explained below (DFA, IFA, ACIF, ABIF and Micro-IF).
FCFlow cytometry (FC) is an emerging technique which holds great promise for the separation, classification and quantitation of blood cells and antibodies which affect blood cells. Complex computerized instruments are used to pass a monocellular stream of cells, platelets or other microscopic particulate elements through a beam of laser light. The cells are categorized first by size and then computer analyzed to sort the mixture of cellular elements into cell type by size. In addition, monoclonal antibodies to specific cell surface markers are conjugated to fluorescent dyes and each cell displaying appropriate fluorescent light emission is counted. Tabulation of counted data in conjunction with size analysis enables determination of relative percentages of each specific cellular subset for which monoclonal antibody conjugates are utilized, even when the size of the cell is identical to other subset species.
FEIAEnzyme immunoassay (FEIA)Enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). A standard curve is used to calculate the specific IgG concentrations. The calibrators are referenced to the International Reference Preparation for serum immunoglobulins. This test has not been cleared or approved for diagnostic use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
FIAFluoroimmunoassayFluoroimmunoassay, Luminex® Multiplex, assay using beads coupled with capsular polysaccharide antigens from Streptococcus pneumonia. The assay is calibrated against U.S. Food and Drug Administration reference serum 89SF. This test has not been cleared or approved for diagnostic use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
FISHFluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) is part of the domain of cytogenetics and has very specific applications. FISH allows for detection of specific numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities. The method allows for screening of a larger number of cells (>200 or more) for analysis than classical chromosomal cytogenetics.
FlocFlocculation Flocculation
FMIFMIFluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay
FPDFreezing Point Depression Freezing Point Depression
FPIAFluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA) is a technique which takes advantage of the increased polarization (non-random propagation of emission) of fluorescent light emissions when a fluorescently labeled antigen is bound by reagent antibody. The higher the concentration of unlabeled patient antigen present in the test mixture, the less bound fluorescent antigen is present and, consequently, the lower the polarization of the fluorescent light emission. Standard calibration yields quantitative results.
FR-NephFixed Rate NephelometryFixed Rate Nephelometry
Frz-PointFreezing PointFreezing Point
FT-NephFixed Time NephelometryFixed Time Nephelometry


GC/MSGas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) GC analysis is a common confirmation test. Among its uses are drug testing and environmental contaminant identification. GC analysis separates all of the components in a sample and provides a representative spectral output. The technician injects the sample into the injection port of the GC device. The GC instrument vaporizes the sample and then separates and analyzes the various components. Each component ideally produces a specific spectral peak that may be recorded on a paper chart or electronically. The time elapsed between injection and elution is called the "retention time." The retention time can help to differentiate between some compounds. The size of the peaks is proportional to the quantity of the corresponding substances in the specimen analyzed. The peak is measured from the baseline to the tip of the peak.
GC/MS/MSGC/MS/MSGas Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)
GELMTS Gel Technology, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics(GEL) Red blood cells that are coated with IgG due to in vitro sensitization are determined indirectly by the MTS Anti-IgG Gel cards. The MTS gel card restricts the unbound IgG from moving through the gel during centrifugation. Thus, unbound IgG does not neutralize the Anti-IgG incorporated in the gel. IgG coated red cells will react with the Anti-IgG gel in the microtube during centrifugation. Strong positive reaction will produce a red line of cells layered at the top of the gel. Weak positive reactions will have visible red cell agglutinates suspended throughout the gel. Uncoated (non sensitized) cells or cells coated only with complement are not agglutinated by the Anti-IgG gel and will form a button at the bottom of the microtube.
Gel-DiffGel DiffusionGel Diffusion
Gene/MAGenomic Microarray (Oligo-SNP Array) Genomic Microarray (Oligo-SNP Array)
GF/AASGraphite Furnace Atomic Absorbtion SpectroscopyGraphite Furnace Atomic Absorbtion Spectroscopy
GiemsaGiemsa Band
GPOGlycerol Phosphate Oxidase Glycerol Phosphate Oxidase
gravGravimetric Gravimetric
GUAIACGuaiac Colormetric Reaction (GUIAC) is a color change in presence of hemoglobin.


HHematofluorometry (H)Hematofluorometry (H)
HAHemagglutination (HA) is a technique for detecting specific antibodies which, when present, will cause antigen-coated reagent erythrocytes to agglutinate. Crude quantitation of the antibodies can be achieved by performing a serial dilution of the patient serum and noting the highest dilution (titer) at which agglutination is still present.
Han StainHansel staina stain used to detect eosinophils in urine or other body fluids, the eosinophils staining red against a background of blue.
HCIIHybrid Capture IIHybrid Capture II
HIHemagglutination Inhibition (HI), also abbreviated HAI, is a variation of the HA technique. Some viral antigens, when coated on erythrocytes, spontaneously cause agglutination in the absence of antibody. In these situations, the specific antigen-antibody reaction actually prevents the agglutination of reagent RBCs. HAI cannot differentiate between isotypes of specific antibodies (IgG, IgA or IgM) although positive HAI analysis of specimens treated with Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (discussed above under CoA) to remove the IgG isotype antibodies has been used to imply the presence of specific IgM antibodies to the specific viral antigen. The crude quantitation of the specific antibodies is possible using serial dilution (titer).
HPLCHigh Performance Liquid ChromatographyHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography
HPLC/IEC/SHPLC/Ion Exchange Chromatography/Quantitative Spectrophotometry HPLC/Ion Exchange Chromatography/Quantitative Spectrophotometry
HPLC/TMSHPLC/Tandem Mass SpectrometryHPLC/Tandem Mass Spectrometry


I-PCR/ElInverse Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrophoresis Inverse Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrophoresis
IA/KAPImmunoassay (IA) / Kinetic Alkaline PicrateImmunoassay (IA) / Kinetic Alkaline Picrate
IA/LCMSMSImmunoassay; Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass SpectrometryImmunoassay; Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
ICImmunoCardImmunochromatographic rapid test utilizing monoclonal antibodies labeled with red-colored gold particles.
ICAImmunocytochemical Assay(ICA) involves the computerized assessment of microscopic fields following DFA, IFA or indirect or direct IP analysis of biopsy tissue from the patient. In addition to improved specificity with the removal of operator subjectivity, the quantifiability of results through computer data analysis of color, intensity and concentration has only begun to be realized.
ICAPImmunoCAPImmunoCAP Allergy testing
ICMAImmunochemiluminometric AssayImmunochemiluminometric Assay
ICP/MSInductively-Coupled Plasma/Mass SpectrometryInductively-Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry
ICP/MS ASInductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) or Atomic Spectroscopy (AS)Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) or Atomic Spectroscopy (AS)
ICP/OESInductively-Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission SpectroscopyInductively-Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy
IDImmunodiffusion(ID), also called Double diffusion (DD) or the Ouchterlony technique, is the classical procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies and determine their specificity by visualization of "lines of identity" (precipitin lines). These precipitin lines (precipitated antigen-antibody complexes) form where the binding concentrations of antigen and antibody are equivalent. Patient serum diffuses from one well through the gel and reacts with a known specific antigen (or antibody) which diffuses through the gel from a second well. DD is strictly qualitative, although the density of the precipitin line and the distance of the line from the sample well may give some indication of the antibody concentration.
IEPImmunoelectrophoresis(IEP) is a two-step procedure which first involves the electrophoretic separation of proteins, followed by the linear diffusion of antibodies into the electrophoretic gel from a trough which extends through the length of the gel adjacent to the electrophoretic path. The antigen-antibody reactions produce precipitin arcs at positions where equivalence occurs. Although quantitation is subjective, an experienced eye can determine not only the presence of the antigen but, through visual comparison to normal control sera, may discriminate relative increases or decreases of antigen by gauging the length and density of the precipitin arcs at positions established for specific antigens using known standards.
IFAIndirect Fluorescent Antibody(IFA) is the detection of antibodies to specific antigenic material in the substrate using fluorescent microscopy. Using fluorescently conjugated antibodies which are specific for a particular isotype of antibody, it is possible to distinguish IgG, IgA and IgM isotypes of specific antibodies using IFA. This sensitive technique is highly specific in well-trained hands and recent developments in the establishment of internationally recognized standard materials have led to accurate quantitation of antibody concentrations through endpoint titration (the highest serial dilution of specimen at which specific fluorescence remains) and through measuring visual intensity of fluorescence compared to known reference standard material.
IFAImmunofluorescence Assay (IFA)Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
IFE-EPImmunofixation Electrophoresis Immunofixation Electrophoresis
IFIXImmunofixation(IFIX) is a powerful enhancement of immunoelectrophoresis in which a series of post-electrophoretic gel slabs are layered with cellulose-acetate gels saturated with specific antibodies. The resulting antigen-antibody complexes fixed on the second gel may then be stained, allowing sensitive and specific qualitative visual identification of paraproteins by electrophoretic position.
iFOBTImmunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test Hemoccult® ICT is the latest and most advanced fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the Hemoccult product line. An immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT) with high specificity and sensitivity, Hemoccult ICT is clinically proven to detect bleeding associated with more cancers and polyps than traditional guaiac-based FOBTs. Because of its superior specificity for lower GI bleeding, Hemoccult ICT is an ideal screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC), and this specificity also reduces the number of false positive test results. Safe and non-invasive, Hemoccult ICT is very patient friendly, as there are no diet or drug restrictions for patients to follow while they are using it, which helps increase patient compliance.
ImmDOTImmunoDOT ImmunoDOT
IMMENZImmunoenzymatic Immunoenzymatic
IMOBIon MobilityIon Mobility
Int/UseInternal Use TestInternal Use Test
INTERPInterpretive information.Interpretive information.
INVSignal Amplification, Invader chemistry detectionThe Invader® platform is a proprietary technique by Third Wave Molecular Diagnostics.
IPImmunoperoxidase(IP) assays are analogous to IFA in that antibody presence is identified on antigenic substrates visually. However, in the indirect IP instead of fluorescent dye-antibody conjugates, enzyme-antibody conjugates (principally peroxidase enzymes) are reacted with their corresponding substrates to produce a product which can be seen with a light microscope, eliminating the requirement for costly fluorescent microscopic equipment.
IRMAImmunoradiometric Assay(IRMA) uses low-level radioactively labeled specific antibody to quantitate low concentration compounds. In IRMA, a first antibody is presented on solid-phase (coated on tubes or beads). After binding the antigen present in the sample, a second radioactively labeled antibody is added. Radioactivity remaining after washing the solid phase is proportional to the concentration of antigen present in the sample and is quantitated by comparison to a standard curve.
ISEIon-Selective ElectrodeIon-Selective Electrode
ISO-FIsolectric FocusingIsolectric Focusing




KAP(Jaffe)Kinetic Alkaline Picrate (Jaffe)Kinetic Alkaline Picrate (Jaffe)
KaryotypeKaryotypeCulture, Microscopy, Karyotype
KSKinetic SpectrophotometricKinetic Spectrophotometric


L-FR NEPHL-FR NEPHLatex, Fixed Rate Time Nephelometry
L/P(NAD)Lactate - Pyruvate (NAD)Lactate - Pyruvate (NAD)
LALatex agglutination(LA), also known as latex particle agglutination, for detection of antibodies is identical to HA in principle, but the substitution of smaller, antigen-coated latex particles for erythrocytes results in improved sensitivity and reagent longevity. Alternatively, antibodies can be absorbed to the latex particles (under appropriate ionic and pH conditions) by binding to the Fc region of antibodies, leaving the Fab region free to interact with antigens present in the applied specimens. This phenomenon has made LA a popular technique for detecting antigens as well.
LAMPLAMPIs a molecular method of Loop mediated isothermal Amplification called Illumigene. Illumigene, by Meridian Bioscience, is an FDA approved technology providing better sensitivity over older EIA methodology.
LC/MSLiquid Chromatography/Mass SpectroscopyLiquid Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy
LC/MS/EDLiquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Equilibrium DialysisLiquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Equilibrium Dialysis
LC/MS/MSLiquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass SpectrometryLiquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) is a technique combining the principles of chromatography and mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation of the analytes is based on the difference of their distribution between a mobile liquid phase and a stationary phase. Mass spectrometry measures ions based on the mass to charge m/z ratio. In LCMS-MS, following a liquid chromatography separation, the sample is introduced into a mass spectrometer, where the molecules are ionized, fragmented, and the fragments are sorted based on their m/z ratio, then subsequently introduced to a second mass spectrometer for further fragmentation, sorting and quantitation. This technique is highly specific and sensitive.
LIALatex Immunoassay Agglutination(LIA)-When a monochromatic beam of light is passed through a suspension of microlates particles which have specific antibodies attached, the light is only slightly absorbed. If the specific antigen is added, the latex particles agglutinate causing the amount of light absorbed to increase. This increase in light absorption is proportional to the amount of antigen present.
LIPALIPALine probe assay (LiPA)
LPBASLiquid-phase Binding Assay SystemLiquid-phase Binding Assay System


MAC ELISAIgM Antibody Capture ELISA (MAC ELISA) has been developed to impart significant improvement in assay specificity to indirect ELISA procedures for IgM isotype antibodies. Solid-phase support (usually microtiter plate wells) are coated with anti-human IgM antibodies capable of binding all IgM isotype antibodies present in the specimen. Reagent antigen is then added, followed by enzyme-labeled antigen- specific antibodies. If IgM antibodies specific for the antigen in question are present, the "sandwich" complex will result in enzymatic color-change proportional to the concentration of IgM-specific antibody present. This technique appears to be the method of choice in many highly specific and more sensitive assays for IgM infectious disease antibodies.
MAFDMulti-Analyte Fluorescent Detection Multi-Analyte Fluorescent Detection
MAIDMAID(Multi-Analyte Immunodetection)
MCMicroscopy(MC) use of a manually operated microscope.
MEIMicroparticle Enzyme ImmunoassayMicroparticle Enzyme Immunoassay
MEIAMicroparticle enzyme immunoassay(MEIA) is a technique in which the solid-phase support consists of very small microparticles in liquid suspension. Specific reagent antibodies are covalently bound to the microparticles. Antigen, if present, is then "sandwiched" between bound antibodies and antigen-specific, enzyme- labeled antibodies. Antigen-antibody complexes are detected and quantitated by analysis of fluorescence from the enzyme-substrate interaction.
miRNAMicroRNA (miRNA) ProfilingMicroRNA (miRNA) Profiling
Miro-IFMicro-immunofluorescence(Micro-IF) is really multiple IFA. Several different substrates are arranged in specific locations on a single microscope slide well allowing a rapid, simultaneous IFA on each substrate.
MLDPAMultiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification
MLPMicro Latex Particle Micro Latex Particle - Mediated Immunoassay
Mod JaffeModified Jaffe, Kinetica fixed time reaction where the picrate is added and the rate of the reaction is measured at a specific wavelength to determine the amount of creatinine in the sample.
Mol-HLAMolecular HLAMolecular HLA oligotyping is determined utilizing PCR and sequence specific oligonucleotide probes, unless otherwise indicated.
MP-MIAMicrolatex Particle-Mediated ImmunoassayMicrolatex Particle-Mediated Immunoassay
MPSMassively Parallel SequencingMassively Parallel Sequencing
MPS/CGHMMassively Parallel Sequencing/Exonic Oligonucleotide-based CGH MicroarryMassively Parallel Sequencing/Exonic Oligonucleotide-based CGH Microarry
MultiplexMultiplex PCRMultiplex PCR


NAANucleic Acid AmplificationNucleic Acid Amplification
NADNucleic Acid DetectionNucleic Acid Detection
NAHNucleic Acid HybridizationNucleic Acid Hybridization
NBNorthern Blot (NB) uses techniques similar to the Southern blot described above. Messenger-RNA from the specimen is separated by electrophoresis and blotted to a specially modified paper support to result in covalent fixing of the mRNA in the electrophoretic positions. Radiolabeled single-stranded DNA fragments complementary to the specific mRNA being sought are then hybridized to the bound m-RNA. If the specific mRNA is present, the radioactivity is detected by autoradiography. The derivation of this technique from the Southern blot used for DNA detection has led to the common usage of the term "Northern blot" for the detection of specific mRNA.
NEPHNephelometry(NEPH) is used to quantitate antigen by analyzing increases in turbidity, as measured by increasing scatter of laser light. The interaction of specific antibodies in the reagent with the antigen from the sample results in the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which are rendered insoluble by the presence of precipitating reagents. Most modern nephelometers compare the rate of formation of antigen-antibody complexes (determined by computer analysis of laser light scatter data) to that of known antigenic standards in order to measure precisely the protein antigens (some of which are actually immunoglobulins) present in moderate concentrations.
NG SeqNext Generation SequencingNext Generation Sequencing
Nile BlueNile Blue.
NMRNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
NtNeutralization (Nt) is similar to complement fixation but is applicable only in certain pathogenic situations where the antibody being measured is directed against a hemolysin (a bacterial toxin capable of directly lysing erythrocytes). In these situations, the hemolysin and reagent erythrocytes are added, and if the antibody to the hemolysin is present, the lysis of RBCs will not occur. As in CF, crude quantitation is afforded by serial dilution which may be quantitatively compared to established standard material dilutions.
NV-BC AggNon-viable bacterial cell agglutination assayNon-viable bacterial cell agglutination assay




PAParticle Agglutination Particle Agglutination
Path RepPathology ReportPathology Report
PatInfoPatient InformationPatient Information
PCRPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a highly efficient method to amplify low levels of specific DNA sequences in a sample to reach the threshold of detection. Two short DNA "primers", oligonucleotides (small portions of a single DNA strand) specific for the pathogenic DNA sought whose sequence flanks that section of DNA to be amplified, are used. Repeated cycles of DNA denaturation (separation of the double DNA strands), primer annealing (recombination of the double-stranded structure) and extension of the primed DNA sequence (by the enzyme DNA polymerase in the presence of added purine and pyrimidine bases) are performed. Each cycle doubles the amount of specific DNA sequence present and results in an exponential accumulation of the DNA fragment being amplified. The reaction products are hybridized to a radioactively labeled DNA segment complementary to a short sequence of the amplified DNA. Following electrophoresis, the radiolabeled product of specific size is detected by autoradiography.
PCR-SSOPCR-SSOPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) • Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probes (SSO)
PCR/CEPCR/Capillary ElectrophoresisPolymerase Chain Reaction/Capillary Electrophoresis
PCR/CEPolymerase Chain Reaction/Capillary Electrophoresis Polymerase Chain Reaction/Capillary Electrophoresis
PCR/DNA/EDPCR/DNA Hybridization/Electrochemical DetectionPCR/DNA Hybridization/Electrochemical Detection
PCR/FAPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fragment AnalysisPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fragment Analysis
PCR/FAPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fragment AnalysisPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fragment Analysis
PCR/FMPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fluorescence Monitoring Polymerase Chain Reaction/Fluorescence Monitoring
PCR/FMPCR/Fluorescence MonitoringPolymerase Chain Reaction/Fluorescence Monitoring
PCR/FRETReal Time PCR/Fluorescence Resonance Energy TransferReal Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
PCR/INVPCR and Invader Plus® detectionPCR and Invader Plus® detection
PCR/MPSPCR/Massively Parallel SequencingPolymerase Chain Reaction/Massively Parallel Sequencing
PCR/NE/FAPCR/Single Nucleotide Extensions/Fragment Analysis PCR/Single Nucleotide Extensions/Fragment Analysis
PCR/PSPolymerase Chain Reaction/Pyrosequencing Polymerase Chain Reaction/Pyrosequencing
PCR/RTPolymerase Chain Reaction/Real TimePolymerase Chain Reaction/Real Time
PCR/SPolymerase Chain Reaction/Sequencing Polymerase Chain Reaction/Sequencing
PCR/S/MLPAPCR/Sequencing/Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe AmpPolymerase Chain Reaction/Sequencing/Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification
PCR/SNPEPolymerase Chain Reaction/Single Nucleotide Primer ExtensionPolymerase Chain Reaction/Single Nucleotide Primer Extension
PCR/SNPEPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) / Single Nucleotide Primer ExtensionPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) / Single Nucleotide Primer Extension
PCR/SOPHPCR/Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probe HybridizationPolymerase Chain Reaction/Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probe Hybridization
PCR/TMAPCR/TMAPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Transcription Mediated Amplification (TMA)
PCRHPLCSPCR/HPLC/Sequencing Polymerase Chain Reaction/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Sequencing
PETINIAEnhanced Turbidimetric-Inhibition Immunoassay (PETINIA)Enhanced Turbidimetric-Inhibition Immunoassay (PETINIA)
PFAPlatelet Function Testing (PFA)-Platelet function is measured under high shear condition which simulate those formed at sites of vascular injury. Using both an epinephrine and ADP collagen membrane, platelets undergo activation, adhesion and aggregation with progressive closure of the membrane aperture reported as the closure time in seconds.
PM-ComplexPhosphomolybdate ComplexPhosphomolybdate Complex
Pyro-RedPyrogallol RedPyrogallol Red


Q EIA/HPLCQualitative EIA/Quantitative HPLC/Tandem MSQualitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Quantitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Q-EIAQuantitative Enzyme ImmunoassayQuantitative Enzyme Immunoassay
Q-ELISAQuantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Q-EMIAQuantitative Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique Quantitative Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique
Q-EnzQuantitative Enzymatic Quantitative Enzymatic
Q-EQD/HPLCQuantitative Equilibrium Dialysis/HPLC-Tandem Mass Spec. Quantitative Equilibrium Dialysis/High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Q-FlowQuantitative Flow CytometryQuantitative Flow Cytometry
Q-FluroQuantitative Fluorometry Quantitative Fluorometry
Q-RIAQuantitative Radioimmunoassay Quantitative Radioimmunoassay
Q-RIDQuantitative Radial Immunodiffusion Quantitative Radial Immunodiffusion
Q-TMAQualitative Transcription-Mediated AmplificationQualitative Transcription-Mediated Amplification
Q/SRAQualitative Serotonin Release AssayQualitative Serotonin Release Assay
QC/EIAQuantitative Colorimetry/Enzyme ImmunoassayQuantitative Colorimetry/Enzyme Immunoassay
QCIAQuantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
QE-CIAQuantitative Electrochemiluminescent ImmunoassayQuantitative Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay
QEFQuantitative Enzymatic/Fluorometry Quantitative Enzymatic/Fluorometry
QENZ/ELECTQuantitative Enzymatic/Electrophoresis Quantitative Enzymatic/Electrophoresis
QEQ/HPLC/TQuant Equilibrium Dialysis/HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Quantitative Equilibrium Dialysis/High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QFEIAQuantitative Fluorescent Enzyme Immunoassay Quantitative Fluorescent Enzyme Immunoassay
QGC/CQuantitative Gas Chromatography/ColorimetryQuantitative Gas Chromatography/Colorimetry
QGC/TMSQuantitative Gas Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Quantitative Gas Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QGCMSQuantitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Quantitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
QHI/EnzQuantitative Heat Inactivation/EnzymaticQuantitative Heat Inactivation/Enzymatic
QHPLC/TMSQuantitative HPLC/Tandem Mass SpectrometryQuantitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QIB/IFASemi-Quantitative Immunoblot/Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Semi-Quantitative Immunoblot/Semi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody
QICP/MSQuantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Quantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
QIFA/QELSASemi-Quant IFA/Semi-Quant ELISASemi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody/Semi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
QITQuantitative ImmunoturbidimetricQuantitative Immunoturbidimetric
Ql ColoQuantitative Colorimetry Quantitative Colorimetry
Ql LC/TMSQualitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass SpectrometryQualitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QL-EIAQualitative Enzyme Immunoassay Qualitative Enzyme Immunoassay
Ql-El/RIDQualitative Gel Electrophoresis/Radial ImmunodiffusionQualitative Gel Electrophoresis/Radial Immunodiffusion
Ql-ELISAQualitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Qualitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
QL-IBQualitative ImmunoblotQualitative Immunoblot
Ql-IDQualitative Immunodiffusion Qualitative Immunodiffusion
QL-IP/SQT-Qualitative Immunoprecipitation/Semi-Quant Multiplex Bead AssayQualitative Immunoprecipitation/Semi-Quant Multiplex Bead Assay
QL-PCRQualitative PCRQualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
QLC/TMSQuant Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass SpectrometryQuantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QlMic/StQualitative Microscopy/Stain Qualitative Microscopy/Stain
QM-BAQuantitative Multiplexed Bead AssayQuantitative Multiplexed Bead Assay
QMBAQuantitative Multiplex Bead AssayQuantitative Multiplex Bead Assay
Qnt-HPLCQuantitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography Quantitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Qnt-I ChrQuantitative Ion Chromatography Quantitative Ion Chromatography
Qnt-LC/ImmQuantitative Liquid Chromatography/ImmunoassayQuantitative Liquid Chromatography/Immunoassay
Qnt-LC/TMSQuantitative Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Quantitative Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
QSPECQuantitative Spectrophotometry Quantitative Spectrophotometry
Qt IFAQuantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody
Qt IVDQuantitative IVD AssayQuantitative IVD Assay
Qt-PCRQuantitative Polymerase Chain ReactionQuantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
Qt/ICAPFEIQuantitative ImmunoCAP Fluorescent Enzyme Immunoassay Quantitative ImmunoCAP Fluorescent Enzyme Immunoassay
QU/QCIAQuantitative Ultrafiltration/Quantitative Chemiluminescent ImmunoassayQuantitative Ultrafiltration/Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
Qual ELISAQualitative ELISA
Qual/If-ElQualitative Immunofixation Electrophoresis Qualitative Immunofixation Electrophoresis
Quant-NephQuantitative NephelometryQuantitative Nephelometry


Rapid IARapid ImmunoassayRapid Immunoassay
Rapid-ICGRapid ImmunochromatographicRapid Immunochromatographic
RBARadiobinding AssayRadiobinding Assay
REARadioenzymatic AssayRadioenzymatic Assay
RFFITRapid Fluorescent FOCI Inhibition TestRapid Fluorescent FOCI Inhibition Test
RFIARapid Fluorescent Immunoassay Rapid Fluorescent Immunoassay
RIARadioimmunoassay (RIA) uses fixed-dose, low-level, radioactive-isotope- labeled antigen ("tracer") to compete with unlabeled antigen from the patient specimen for a fixed number of antibody binding sites. Traditional RIA is done with specific antibodies in liquid solution. Solid-phase RIA involves the use of antibody bound to solid support (e.g., tubes, glass beads or plastic fins). The amount of antigen in the specimen is determined by comparing the bound radioactivity with a standard curve.
RIA-CHRRadioimmunoassay/Chromatography Radioimmunoassay/Chromatography
RIBA/SIARIBA 3.0 Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA)RIBA 3.0 Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA)
RIDRadial Immunodiffusion (RID) is a quantitative variation of the Ouchterlony technique (immunodiffusion) in which the agar gel contains evenly distributed antigen (or antibody) and its counterpart from the test sample diffuses into the gel from a single well resulting in a circular precipitin line around the sample well. The diameter of the precipitin ring is proportional to the concentration of the antibody (or antigen) present in the test sample. By comparing the diameter of the test specimen precipitin ring to known standards, a relatively insensitive estimation of the concentration of specific antibody or antigen can be achieved.
RIPARadioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) is the term used to describe the qualitative assay used as a confirmatory procedure for some antibodies to viral antigens. Viral-infected cell cultures are radioactively labeled and lysed to yield radiolabeled antigen fragments. Specific antibodies, if present, will bind these antigen fragments and the resulting antigen-antibody complexes are precipitated using protein A, boiled to free the immune complexes which are then separated by electrophoresis. The pattern of antigenic moieties to which antibodies are present may then be detected using autoradiography (the exposure of sensitive X-ray film by the radioactive emissions of the bound, labeled antigens). Comparison to labeled molecular weight standards electrophoresed in the same run allows determination of the molecular weight "bands" of antigen to which antibodies are present.
RT-PCRReverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is a technique used to amplify RNA targets. The specimen containing the target RNA (e.g., HIV-1 RNA, Hepatitis C Virus RNA) is subjected to reverse transcription to make complementary DNA (cDNA), which is then, in turn, amplified by PCR.


S-Q IFASemi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent AntibodySemi-Quantitative Indirect Fluorescent Antibody
SBSouthern Blot (SB) describes the technique first developed by the Scottish molecular biologist Edward M. Southern which now bears his name. Specimen DNA is denatured, treated with restriction enzymes to result in DNA fragments and then the single-stranded DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis. The electrophoretically separated fragments are then blotted to a nitrocellulose membrane, retaining their electrophoretic position, and hybridized with radiolabeled single- stranded DNA fragments with sequences complementary to those being sought. The resulting double-stranded DNA bearing the radiolabel is then, if present, detected by autoradiography.
SDAStrand displacement amplificationStrand displacement amplification
See NotesSee Test NotesSee Test Notes
SEMI-FCSemi-Quantitative Flow Cytometry Semi-Quantitative Flow Cytometry
Semi-Q RIDSemi-Quantitative Radial ImmunodiffusionSemi-Quantitative Radial Immunodiffusion
SFScanning FluorometryScanning Fluorometry
SpecInfoSpecimen InformationSpecimen Information
SPISPISolid-Phase Immunochromatograph
SQ-EIASemi-Quantitative Enzyme ImmunoassaySemi-Quantitative Enzyme Immunoassay
SQ-ELISASemi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Semi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
SQ-IFASemi-Quantitative Immunofluorescence AssaySemi-Quantitative Immunofluorescence Assay (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody)
SQ-SNSemi-Quantitative Serum NeutralizationSemi-Quantitative Serum Neutralization
SQAGGSemi-Quantitative AgglutinationSemi-Quantitative Agglutination
SQBio/QCIASemi-Quant Bioassay/Quant Chemiluminescent ImmunoassaySemi-Quant Bioassay/Quant Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
SQCFSemi-Quantitative Complement Fixation Semi-Quantitative Complement Fixation
SQt-RIASemi-Quantitative RadioimmunoassaySemi-Quantitative Radioimmunoassay
SSISingle Stain Immunofluorescence Single Stain Immunofluorescence
SVShell Vial CultureShell Vial Culture


T-Seg SNPTargeted sequencing with SNPs Targeted sequencing with SNPs
TLCThin Layer ChromatographyThin-layer chromatography consists of a stationary phase immobilized on a glass or plastic plate, and an organic solvent. The sample, either liquid or dissolved in a volatile solvent, is deposited as a spot on the stationary phase. The constituents of a sample can be identified by simultaneously running standards with the unknown. The bottom edge of the plate is placed in a solvent reservoir, and the solvent moves up the plate by capillary action. When the solvent front reaches the other edge of the stationary phase, the plate is removed from the solvent reservoir. The separated spots are visualized with ultraviolet light or by placing the plate in iodine vapor. The different components in the mixture move up the plate at different rates due to differences in their partioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase.
TMATranscription-Mediated AmplificationTranscription-Mediated Amplification
TMSTandem Mass Spectrometry Tandem Mass Spectrometry
TOPATurbidometric Optical Platelet AggregationTurbidometric Optical Platelet Aggregation
TPTZTPTZ2,4,6-Tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) is a color reagent for ferrous ion in the pH
Tr/Eq/DialTracer Equilibrium DialysisTracer Equilibrium Dialysis
TS-EIATwo-Site Enzyme Immunoassay Two-Site Enzyme Immunoassay
Tube-AggTube AgglutinationTube Agglutination




ViscCone-Plate Viscometer Cone-Plate Viscometer
VisualVisualClot retraction measured visually.


WBWestern Blot (WB) or Immunoblot, because of the similarity to the procedures described above, is used to detect antibodies to specific epitopes of electrophoretically separated subspecies of antigens. Electrophoresis of antigenic material yields separation of the antigenic components by molecular weight. Blotting of the separated antigen to nitrocellulose, retaining the electrophoretic position, and reacting it with patient specimen will result in the binding of specific antibodies, if present, to each antigenic "band". Electrophoresis of known molecular weight standards allows for the determination of the molecular weight of each antigenic band to which antibodies may be produced. These antibodies are then detected using EIA reactions which characterize antibody specificity. This technique is often used to confirm the specificity of antibodies which are detected by ELISA screening procedures.
WB/ELISA/RWestern Blot/Quantitative ELISA/RT-QuIC AnalysisWestern Blot/Quantitative ELISA/RT-QuIC Analysis
WB/Q-ELISAWestern Blot/Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssayWestern Blot/Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
WestergrenWestergrenThe erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate, is the rate at which red blood cells precipitate in a given time period. It is a common hematology test which is a non-specific measure of inflammation. Anticoagulated blood is placed in an upright tube, known as a Westergren tube, and the rate at which the red blood cells fall is measured and reported.
WRIGHTWright StainWright Stain
Index by Test Name